By Laman Ismayilova
The Land of Fire is home to many extraordinary natural wonders,
From emerald forests to majestic waterfalls, there are numerous
natural sights in Azerbaijan that are waiting to be explored.
Mud volcanoes are undoubtedly one of the country’s most-visited
natural attractionsç encouraging people to travel to far-flung
destinations just to catch a glimpse of this natural miracle.
In total, there are about 700 mud volcanoes in the world and 350
of them are located in Azerbaijan, Azernews reports.
NASA geologists studying Mars concluded that the mud volcanoes
of Azerbaijan are similar to the uplands of the planet in their
World’s largest mud volcano
Toragay is the largest mud volcano in the world, which is
located in the south of Gobustan.
The height of the volcano is 400 meters, and the volcanic crater
is 150 meters in diameter. The mud volcano erupted 6 times from
1841 to 1950.
In 2004, the Toragay mud volcano was added to the Guinness World
Boyuk Kanizadag is another mud volcano that thrills everyone who
It is known as the largest mud volcano on the territory of
Gobustan. This mud volcano erupted on October 10, 2001, shooting
out flames 300 meters in the air.
Located in the suburb of Baku, the Otman Bozdag mud volcano
erupted in 2017. The Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS)
announced that two eruptions were recorded in the territory of the
Sangachal settlement, Garadagh district. This was the 9th eruption
of the mud volcano.
Mud Volcanoes Tourism Complex
In 2021, the groundbreaking ceremony was held for Mud Volcanoes
Tourism Complex in Gobustan.
President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev and First Lady Mehriban
Aliyeva attended the event.
The Mud Volcanoes Tourism Complex will be established 59
kilometers south-western Baku, around 17 kilometers north-western
Gobustan settlement, on the main road to Shamakhi region. This
territory is known as Gilinj mud volcanoes area.
The decision to create a tourism complex here was made upon the
evaluation of this destination’s tourism potential. Thus, another
tourism infrastructure project is underway within the ‘State
Program for the Socioeconomic Development of the Regions for
The 12-hectare complex is expected to include a quad bike path,
footpaths, a zip line and an observation tower, a parking lot, a
souvenir shop, as well as therapeutic baths.
There are also plans to extend a 20-kilometer road from the
Gobustan Reserve to Gilinj and surrounding volcanoes and create the
Baku-Gobustan-Mud volcanoes tourism cluster.
Unique and rare minerals
Studies have revealed the presence of rare types of minerals,
non-specific sulfates, oxides, natural iron, and many other
elements in the mud volcanic breccia.
Note that volcanic breccia consists mainly of a mixture of clay
mass with fragments of hard rocks.
The studies suggest that these minerals were formed under the
influence of deep mud volcano fluids.
Rich in minerals, mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan can be used for
Mud is considered suitable for treatment if it contains a large
number of organic compounds, iodine, bromine, hydrogen sulfide,
In general, the healing properties of about 40 types of volcanic
mud have been studied and confirmed by biochemical analysis.
The volcanic mud of Akhtarma Garadag, Dashgil, Bahar, and
Masazir are the most studied in the country from a medical point of
They are considered similar to healthy mud found in Akhtala,
Mud resort of Georgia due to the high content of bromine,
iodine, boron, and other organic compounds.
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